STRAITS British Policy towards the Ottoman Empire and the Origins of the Dardanelles Campaign © 1997-2005 Geoffrey Miller





STRAITS : British policy towards the Ottoman Empire and the Origins of the Dardanelles Campaign © Geoffrey Miller



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Please click to go to the "Straits" web-site STRAITS
British Policy towards the Ottoman Empire and the Origins of the Dardanelles Campaign

The second volume of the Straits Trilogy

Volume I: Superior Force : the conspiracy behind the escape of Goeben and Breslau
Volume II: Straits : British Policy towards the Ottoman Empire and the Origins of the Dardanelles Campaign
Volume III: The Millstone : British Naval Policy in the Mediterranean, 1900 - 1914, the Commitment to France and British Intervention in the War

Due to the limited number of copies of "Straits" remaining in print, I have designed this website to provide those who may be interested with the entire text of the book. Please note, however, that all rights are reserved and that no part of this publication may be further reproduced by any means without the prior permission of the author, Geoffrey Miller, who has asserted his right in accordance with sections 77 and 78 of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988 to be identified as the author of this work.


Map of Turkey





British Policy towards the Ottoman Empire and the Origins of the Dardanelles Campaign


On 19 February 1915 the guns of the massed Anglo - French fleet off Cape Helles opened fire on targets on the European and Asiatic shores of the Ottoman Empire. The Dardanelles campaign had begun. The course of the struggle that began that day has been charted in detail elsewhere, but there has hitherto been little in - depth analysis of how it came about. Turkey’s pre - war alignment with Germany culminated with the signatures of the German Ambassador and Turkish Grand Vizier on the formal Treaty of Alliance on the afternoon of Sunday, 2 August 1914, but for months the treaty remained no more than a scrap of paper. The Turks mobilized only as fast as their moribund economy allowed while at the same time continuing to give the outward appearance of an anxious, if hardly disinterested, neutral.

The menacing days of August passed; the Turks prevaricated, neither in the War nor immune from it. Unable to contain himself any longer, the First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, actively sought Greek co - operation for a planned major offensive against the Turks at the Dardanelles. His plea for assistance reached the British Officer at the head of the Greek Navy, Rear - Admiral Mark Kerr, who set impossible conditions which he knew would result in the proposal being rejected in London. With his plans having thus gone awry, Churchill turned his gaze away from the plain of Troy — temporarily.

By October, 1914 the patience of the Germans had also snapped. With the connivance of the Turkish Minister of War, but against the wishes of the majority of the Turkish Cabinet, the German Admiral at the head of the Turkish Navy single-handedly forced the issue. At the helm of the magnificent battle cruiser Goeben, which had escaped from the pursuing British Squadron in the first days of the war and had sought refuge at Constantinople, Admiral Souchon steamed into the Black Sea and deliberately shelled Russian ships, ports and shore installations. The Turks, reluctant to the last, were finally propelled into the war. Yet, would this outcome have eventuated without the presence of Souchon and Goeben? The Turkish fleet by itself was too weak to risk a sortie in the Black Sea. Without Goeben could the issue have been forced? Now that the Turks had become involuntarily embroiled in the War, Churchill’s eyes once more turned eastward.

The first volume of the STRAITS Trilogy, Superior Force, traced the escape of the German battle cruiser Goeben and her consort Breslau in the first days of the War. After seeking refuge inside the Dardanelles, the German admiral in command eventually manoeuvred his ships into the Black Sea and deliberately shelled Russian ships and ports. The Turks, reluctant to the last, were finally propelled into the War. Yet, would this outcome have eventuated without the presence of Goeben? The Turkish fleet by itself was too weak to risk a sortie in the Black Sea. Without Goeben could the issue have been forced? 

In this second volume I attempt to provide a comprehensive appraisal of the many factors leading up to the Dardanelles campaign. Among the factors explored are: 

  • The failure of pre - war British diplomacy in the Ottoman Empire and the sinister influence operating from within the British Embassy in Constantinople.

  • The nature of the Young Turk régime after the revolution of 1908.

  • The persistent British rejections of the pre - war Turkish approaches for an alliance.

  • The extent of German infiltration in the Ottoman Empire.

  • Churchill’s rôle in the 1914 crisis, which included seizing the property of a neutral state.

  • The escape of Goeben and Breslau and their subsequent activities.

  • The choices facing the Turkish Cabinet in the period from August to November 1914.

  • The higher direction of the war in the East and the efforts made to buy Turkey out of the war.

  • The deliberate attempt by the British head of the Greek Navy to prevent Greek involvement in any Allied campaign at Gallipoli.

  •  A new interpretation of the “Drift to the Dardanelles” examining the extent to which the campaign originated as a result of personal friction between Churchill and Fisher.

  • The strategic implications of the Navy’s change to oil.


STRAITS takes the opening bombardment at the Dardanelles not as the starting point but as its culmination in an endeavour to explain how it was that Turkey was aligned with Germany — a ruinous alliance which was by no means preordained. British diplomatic policy towards the Ottoman Empire failed comprehensively when the result could have been so different. Why, for example, was every Turkish appeal for an alliance with Britain rebuffed? The Young Turk revolution of 1908 presented the British Foreign Office with a quandary — to support the new régime, which had successfully restored the constitution, or continue to remain aloof, as had been the policy during the reign of Abdul the Damned. Support was grudgingly provided but the improved British position at the Sublime Porte was jeopardized by two events: the new Ambassador, who was deeply antagonistic to the new régime, and the Anglo - Russian convention which meant that the British Foreign Secretary had to try somehow to support the Turks without alienating the Russians.

The common thread running through the book is the struggle to control the Straits of the Dardanelles and Bosphorus from the period when the British Squadron at Malta commanded the Mediterranean Sea unopposed at the turn of the century through to the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire first as a result of the Turco - Italian and Balkan Wars and then following Turkey’s forced, and ultimately disastrous, entry into World War I. This struggle encompassed Russian aspirations, Greek ambition, French colonial ardour and British Imperial and oil considerations — all underpinned by the constant desire of the Turks themselves to prevent the collapse of their Empire.

British diplomatic policy towards the Ottoman Empire failed comprehensively when the result could have been so different.

Winston Churchill and The Dardanelles

Winston Churchill




Admiral Sir John Fisher




Enver Pasha

Enver Pasha






Part I



Please click on a number or title to go directly to that chapter.

The illustrations below are shown full size in the relevant chapter. Click any illustration to view full size, then use the 'back' button to return.


Abdul the Damned



The reign of Abdul Hamid  —  the Russo - Turkish war of 1877 — Britain intervenes — the fleet at the Dardanelles — the Congress of Berlin — progress and despotism — the wrong horse — the Mediterranean agreements of the 1890s — Germany steps in to fill the breach  — the concession for the Baghdad Railway — the threat from Russia — the new strategic alignment.

Sultan Abdul Hamid -- click to enlarge Midhat Pasha -- click to enlarge
Sultan Abdul Hamid & Midhat Pasha




The Young Turks



The defence of Egypt — Military apprehension regarding close Turco - German ties — the 1906 C.I.D. debate on war with Turkey — the question of the Dardanelles — a difference of opinion within the Navy — the view from the Foreign Office — the General Staff appreciation — intelligence gathering — the malign influence of Gerald Fitzmaurice —  unrest within the Empire — the Anglo - Russian Agreement — the signal for the revolution  — a guerilla campaign — the British Embassy caught on the hop — Fitzmaurice’s appraisal  — the constitution is reinstated — hopeful signs of improved Anglo - Turkish relations  — Grey’s fears — his instructions to the new Ambassador.

Sir Edward Grey -- click to enlarge Major Niazi Bey -- click to enlarge
Sir Edward Grey & Major Niazi Bey




Revolution and Counter-revolution



The new regime — an early test — the secret Austro - Russian agenda — the Bosnian crisis  — Isvolsky thwarted — Russia reconsiders her relations with Turkey — the demand for a Conference — the awkward question that has come too soon — Isvolsky’s new proposal —  his threat — Cabinet considers and rejects the latest proposal — the question of reciprocity  — the Straits memorandum — the hope that the question may now be postponed — a Conference or direct negotiations? — Isvolsky’s delicate position — the Turks seek assistance — a Balkan entente? — an offensive alliance — the first signs of reaction — the difficulty of dealing with the Committee — Parliament re - opens — a breakthrough — the Austro - Turkish Protocol — an ingenious idea — the Turks hold out for more.

Constantinople in 1908 -- click to enlarge
Constantinople in 1908




A Chance is Lost



A Japanese analogy — the appointment of a British Naval Mission — more anxiety over German influence — the Baghdad Railway controversy — Kiamil overreaches himself — a game of bluff — the Russo - Turkish Protocol — the Conference proposal shelved —  Nicolson advocates an Anglo - Russian alliance — Grey’s refusal — Hardinge’s attitude — the counter - revolution — the Action Army marches — the demise of Abdul Hamid —  Lowther’s patronizing attitude — the Young Turks are granted a second chance —  Lowther fights back — Austrian ambitions satiated — Isvolsky embittered — the devil you know.

The new Sultan -- click to enlarge
The new Sultan



5 Railways and Navies  


The attempt to separate army from politics — Ottomanization versus Turkification — the C.U.P. splinters — a British railway — British penetration into Mesopotamia — a new naval programme — a British snub — relations deteriorate — the threat of Pan - Islamism — a change of emphasis in Russia — foreign money — a scheme to employ German naval officers is nipped in the bud — a new realism — the Baghdad Railway reconsidered — Italy jumps the gun.

Enver Pasha -- click to enlarge
Enver Pasha




The Turks Attract No Bids



 The Turco - Italian War — opening shots — Italy alienates her friends — the Foreign Office remains faithful — the Turkish appeals for intervention — an effective guerrilla war — the Tcharykov intrigue — a Turkish offer of alliance — Churchill’s advocacy — Grey adopts a conciliatory line — the Admiralty is unconcerned — who will make the first move? — a new Russian initiative — the Russian Ambassador is disowned.  

Tewfik Pasha -- click to enlarge
Tewfik Pasha




A Harmless Sort of War



 The war does little damage — the hunt for scapegoats — attacks upon the C.U.P. increase  — the ‘Big Stick’ election — Italy steps up the war — a pointless attack — a small victory for the Concert of Europe — a Russian volte - face — the Dodecanese occupied — the British position — Foreign Office concerns over the evacuation of the Mediterranean — Crowe’s memorandum — the C.U.P. is overthrown — a short - lived peace is achieved.

SMS Panther -- click to enlarge
German gunboat Panther




A Dangerous Season



Internal unrest — the Balkan League — the not - so - secret treaty — the First Balkan War —  the Turks are routed — the fall of Constantinople looms — a new Grand Vizier — the delicate British position — a Russian over - reaction — the Turkish line holds — an armistice and a conference in London — a review of 1912 — new proposals for the Baghdad Railway — the Conference reconvenes — the problem of Adrianople.

Talaat Bey -- click to enlarge
Talaat Bey




Enver Intervenes



A coup is planned — the pretext — Enver and Talaat act to prevent an ignominious peace  — the personalities of Enver and Talaat — a new reply is sent — hostilities re - opened —  Lowther grows weary — Fitzmaurice turns against the Ambassador — the final battle for Adrianople — the fall of Adrianople — the Turks sue for peace — the Treaty of London  — the problem of the Aegean Islands — a strong navy — British Naval Mission — Lowther’s alarming reports.  

Enver Pasha
Major Enver Bey




The Open Mind



Grey plans Lowther’s recall — Kiamil’s coup is forestalled — the assassination of the Grand Vizier — the consolidation of the C.U.P. — Talaat, Enver and Djemal come out into the open — a new approach for a defensive alliance — the credentials of the Ambassador - designate — the Second Balkan War — a Bulgarian miscalculation —  Adrianople is re - taken — the preservation of Ottoman integrity — the Turks try the patience of the Powers — the problem of coercion — the closed mind.

Kiamil Pasha -- click to enlarge
Kiamil Pasha




The Mission



Mallet – a new direction? — the German Military Mission — the appointment of Liman von Sanders — the Russian reaction — the delicate British position — the difficulty of dealing with Sazonov — the comparison with Limpus — Sazonov ups the stakes — the strength of the Entente put to the test — a possible concession — Grey’s predicament —  Mallet’s conciliatory approach — German intelligence — the collective inquiry to the Grand Vizier —  Russia must be supported.

Ambassador Mallet -- click to enlarge  Liman von Sanders & staff -- click to enlarge
Louis Mallet and Liman von Sanders




The Unhappy Plight of Admiral Limpus



Signs of a compromise — Enver becomes Minister for War — Liman’s promotion — the crisis subsides — Russia considers her options — Sazonov’s standing is lowered — pressure to strengthen the Entente — the work of Admiral Limpus — the fate of the Brazilian battleship — Turkey buys a dreadnought — the dockyard concession — a rebuke — the Admiral’s disillusionment — Limpus attempts to leave.




Russian Machinations



The islands’ question — a new cause for concern — Venizelos makes mischief — Liman exceeds his remit — the Straits are strengthened — the Turks are annoyed, the British suspicious — a shift in German policy? — the Russians take a pragmatic line — the limitations of Russian foreign policy — the Turks offer an alliance — Sazonov vacillates  — Turkish naval building — tension with Greece — the curious case of the fortuitously delayed dreadnought.




The Alliance



The easing of local tension — another alliance approach — changes in the Embassy —  Fitzmaurice is forced out — Mallet on leave — German doubts begin to surface — a decision is reached — every rifle is required — the forced conversion of Ambassador Wangenheim  — the terms of the Treaty — Austria declares war on Serbia — the Russian mobilization —  Goeben is required — a possible trade - off? — an alliance is concluded.




The Embargo



Churchill’s hand is forced — a deliberate act of policy? — an inconvenient opinion — policy or piracy? — a race against time — Raouf is dispossessed — the Turkish protest — Enver puts a price on Turkish assistance — a double game — Turkish mobilization — the Foreign Office abandons hope — Said Halim strikes a hard bargain — conflicting reports — a convergence of opinion — the position becomes clearer.




Negotiate and Temporize



Activity in Constantinople — a Bulgarian compact — Enver’s unusual request — his motives examined — the Turks temporize — continued anger at the pre - emption — Limpus desires to be recalled — the question of payment — procrastination in London — Admiral Milne is kept in the dark — a definite clue is received — no action is taken —  the performance of the Admiralty and Foreign Office — the conspiracy in Athens.  




The Bogus Sale



Earnest entreaties — where was Churchill? — good news from Constantinople — the onerous burden of the Chargé D’Affaires — a clearer indication of the Turkish attitude —  the German ships arrive — disbelief in London — final acceptance — a provocative blockade? — efforts to keep Turkey neutral — Enver prevaricates — sanctuary is granted  — an inspired compromise — the reaction in London — recognition of the fait accompli.

Djavid Bey -- click to enlarge SMS Breslau in Turkish colours -- click to enlarge
Djavid Bey and SMS Breslau




The Turks Play a Double Game



Goeben’s new refuge — Souchon travels to Constantinople — Sazonov reacts at last —  Grey’s cautious approach — Churchill’s personal appeal — the anomalous position of Admiral Limpus — Limpus is sacked — Crowe’s intervention — a grand ceremony — solemn assurances — strategic options — the difficulty of achieving surprise — the trap for Souchon  — Mallet returns — an immediate success — a new pragmatism — an unwarranted complaint — an assurance is given — Mallet is deceived.

Proclamation of a Jihad -- click to enlarge Djemal Pasha -- click to enlarge
Jihad proclaimed and Djemal Pasha




The Forward Policy of Winston Churchill



A generous offer? — who rules at the Porte? — Djemal’s shopping list — patience wears thin  — no effort is made to repatriate the German crews — patience is exhausted — a signal to attack — German gold to bribe the Turks — the mission of Admiral Guido von Usedom  — a plan for British action — Churchill applies the pressure — the assurance to Greece — a less than generous offer — Talaat springs a surprise — a new posting for Limpus — Mallet objects — Churchill’s fury — an unsatisfactory arrangement — unseemly haste — the Naval Mission departs — varied intelligence.  

Churchill when First Lord -- click to enlarge
Churchill as First Lord




The Last Hurrah for Said Halim



The Dardanelles defences — unrelenting German pressure — Enver’s authorization — a step too far — Said Halim rallies support — the victory is short - lived — Mallet’s rebuke —  Churchill renews his attack upon Mallet — Carden’s new orders — a minor incident — the Straits are closed — Mallet’s surmise — a lack of suitable agents — Talaat, the pivotal figure? — Kühlmann’s mission — Enver’s mercenary suggestion — Germany buys Turkish action — hope is abandoned in London.

Turkish troops -- click to enlarge
Turkish troops leaving for the front




The Private War



Mallet stakes all — Enver’s secret arrangement — the German plan — the bombardment —  the burden of uncertainty is lifted — a fatuous demand — last minute Turkish doubts — no disavowal is possible — the Embassy staffs depart — Foreign Office policy is defended —  Sazonov hesitates — the formula of Ottoman integrity is abandoned — Churchill’s prompt blow — change at the Admiralty — Fisher returns — Limpus urges caution — a futile demonstration — its consequence — panic in Constantinople — the declaration of war —  Churchill orders a repeat dose — the Turkish response — Churchill prevaricates — a private war.  

Said Halim -- click to enlarge Troops hearing proclamation -- click to enlarge
Said Halim and troops hearing the proclamation of a Jihad

Part II

22 The Lure of the Dardanelles    

The attractions of the Dardanelles — a right and obvious method — no army is forth - coming — the effect of Carden’s lucky shot — Churchill’s volatile mind — the exploits of B11 and Doris — the Turks under - estimated — the appalling prospect on the Western Front — Hankey’s memorandum — Churchill’s option — Fisher’s caution — competing projects — Lloyd George enters the fray — the higher direction of the war — a Russian appeal  — Enver takes charge — a Turkish rout — Kitchener’s pessimism — no troops to spare —  playing the German game.  

Turkish cruiser Messudieh  -- click to enlarge
Turkish cruiser Messudieh
23  Fisher’s Folly    

An important adherent — Fisher’s crucial contribution — an important alteration — a gibe  — its curious effect — the inquiry to Carden — an alternative explanation — Northern possibilities — a limited action? — planning for the Borkum operation continues — Carden’s reply — its effect — Admiral Jackson’s cautious appraisal — the question of timing —  intelligence from Constantinople — a window of opportunity — the debate in the War Council — Kitchener now enthuses — Balfour is prescient but quiet — Fisher loses his grip.  

Admiral Sir John Fisher -- click to enlarge
Admiral Sir John Fisher
24 Conversion    

A convergence of desires — Churchill holds to the Northern option — Carden’s plan arrives — a novel suggestion from Fisher — conflicting signals — Churchill’s bombshell in the War Council — Asquith’s curious conclusions — the issue is fudged — Churchill proposes, Fisher opposes — Fisher catches cold — his unease becomes known — Hankey intervenes — send for Jellicoe? — Churchill acts to silence the opposition — Fisher’s surprising reaction — a sad spectacle — Hankey and Fisher collaborate — Churchill finds a scapegoat — Asquith’s lapse of judgment.  

Field Marshal Kitchener -- click to enlarge
Kitchener of Khartoum





Problems with the French — a rebuff — Grey’s support is enlisted — a further precaution —  Churchill cannot risk the French obtaining command — The First Lord has his way —  Augagneur is convinced — the Grand Duke is dealt with — the Russians are surprised  — Fisher makes a stand — Asquith stands firm — a scene in the War Council — Kitchener’s athletic intervention — were the risks made clear? — a trade - off — Fisher’s reluctant acceptance.

26 Decision  

An immediate meeting is convened — tacit acceptance — the power of naval weaponry — a misapprehension — Hankey’s concern — a new French initiative — the prevarications of Premier Venizelos — the question of troops  — a new offer to Greece — Hankey’s calculating assent — Kitchener has second thoughts  — pressure is applied — the effect of the opening bombardment — troops are committed.  


Part III


The Oil Equation  


A hidden agenda? — a Persian oil concession is granted — Admiralty trials — oil to be used as an adjunct only — the competition is eliminated — D’Arcy’s lack of success — Fisher, the oil maniac — the last - minute strike — the new menace — Churchill, another convert — the Pakenham Committee — the Royal Commission on Oil Fuel — a forgone conclusion? —  the quest for the Mesopotamian concession — Greenway’s alarming evidence — Fisher is unconcerned — the advantages of oil — a surprise recommendation — the Commission bites back — APOC vs. Shell — the question of price.  

28 Admiralty and Oil    

The Admiralty balks at Greenway’s terms — the need for capital — Indian participation?  — Churchill’s important memorandum — competing standards — Churchill argues persuasively — the debate is inconclusive — the decision to revert to coal in the Revenge class  — the Admiralty tries to enlist the support of the India Office — the logical conclusion  — the Admiralty enters the oil business — the last opposition is silenced — Anglo - Turkish negotiations — Admiral Slade’s commission — a multitude of applications — a deal is done  — the Fusion Agreement — a final complication.  

29 A Hostage to Fortune    

Anglo - Persian makes a move on the Mesopotamian fields — the question of direct influence in Mesopotamia — the Admiralty position — the Admiralty and Foreign Office clash — the problem of overt British participation — the undesirability of reciprocal rights  — the negotiations stall — the finalization of the APOC deal — Churchill’s five conditions  — harsh criticism — appeasing the Russians and Shell — the test of war — the British position in the Gulf secured — the fate of Constantinople — Russian apprehension  — confusion amongst the allies — no way to run a war.  



The Great Prize  


The Director of Naval Intelligence and his private initiative — the reappearance of Fitzmaurice — secret Anglo - Turkish talks — something more than money — electrifying news — Fisher’s hasty reaction — a secondary bombardment — an approach to the Vali of Smyrna — the promise of a coup — Grey has no room to manoeuvre — the failure of these attempts — the question of Greek participation — Grey’s innocuous statement — Russian apprehension turns to alarm — fears of a separate peace — another sweeping offer by Venizelos — the Russian veto — a compromise? — Foreign Office objections — the issue is decided in Athens — the Tsar’s decree — a link between Constantinople and Persia? — the Russian proposal is debated — a quid pro quo — the fate of the neutral zone in Persia — the consideration of British desiderata — summary.


31 Armistice  

The Turks routed — Bulgaria sues for peace — Turkish peace feelers — the troublesome question of command — Clemenceau and Lloyd George trade arguments — a new Ministry — the egregious General Townshend — an unseemly altercation — the vital four conditions — the Turkish position — their desire to deal solely with the British — the question of unconditional surrender — the Turkish delegates arrive — the Armistice terms — difficulty over the conditions — problems with the French — the Armistice is signed — the hard - line Foreign Office attitude — a final word.


Please note that, while all the appendices below appear in the book, certain of them (shown in red type) are subject to copyright and cannot be reproduced on this site.


one Formal Text of the Turco - German Alliance of 2 August 1914.
two The Shirey Story.
three A Pertinent Exchange of Letters.
four The Sultan And His Executive.
five Extracts From A Memorandum By Mr. Adam Block Respecting Franco - German Economic Penetration Up To 1906.
six Turkish Armistice Terms.
seven Defence of the Suez Canal, Narrative of Events, 25 January to 8 February 1915.

List of Grand Viziers, 1908 to 1919.


List of Alternative Place Names
ten Memorandum by the General Staff Upon the Possibility of a Joint Naval and Military Attack Upon the Dardanelles.
eleven Biographical appendix








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HMS Berwick : Original artwork © 2004 Geoffrey Miller
HMS Berwick
[Original artwork © 2004 Geoffrey Miller]

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