||List of Maps and Illustrations
||Abdul the Damned
||The reign of Abdul Hamidthe Russo-Turkish war of
1877Britain intervenesthe fleet at the Dardanellesthe Congress of
Berlinprogress and despotismthe wrong horsethe Mediterranean agreements
of the 1890sGermany steps in to fill the breach the concession for the Baghdad
Railwaythe threat from Russiathe new strategic alignment.
||The Young Turks
||The defence of EgyptMilitary apprehension regarding close
Turco-German tiesthe 1906 C.I.D. debate on war with Turkeythe question of the
Dardanellesa difference of opinion within the Navythe view from the Foreign
Officethe General Staff appreciationintelligence gatheringthe malign
influence of Gerald Fitzmaurice unrest within the Empirethe Anglo-Russian
Agreementthe signal for the revolution a guerilla campaignthe British
Embassy caught on the hopFitzmaurices appraisal the constitution is
reinstatedhopeful signs of improved Anglo-Turkish relations Greys
fearshis instructions to the new Ambassador.
||Revolution and Counter-revolution
||The new regimean early testthe secret Austro-Russian
agendathe Bosnian crisis Isvolsky thwartedRussia reconsiders her
relations with Turkeythe demand for a Conferencethe awkward question that has
come too soonIsvolskys new proposal his threatCabinet considers
and rejects the latest proposalthe question of reciprocity the Straits
memorandumthe hope that the question may now be postponeda Conference or
direct negotiations?Isvolskys delicate positionthe Turks seek
assistancea Balkan entente?an offensive alliancethe first signs of
reactionthe difficulty of dealing with the CommitteeParliament re-opensa
breakthroughthe Austro-Turkish Protocolan ingenious ideathe Turks hold
out for more.
A Chance is Lost
||A Japanese analogythe appointment of a British Naval
Missionmore anxiety over German influencethe Baghdad Railway
controversyKiamil overreaches himselfa game of bluffthe Russo-Turkish
Protocolthe Conference proposal shelved Nicolson advocates an Anglo-Russian
allianceGreys refusalHardinges attitudethe
counter-revolutionthe Action Army marchesthe demise of Abdul Hamid
Lowthers patronizing attitudethe Young Turks are granted a second chance
Lowther fights backAustrian ambitions satiatedIsvolsky embitteredthe
devil you know.
||Railways and Navies
||The attempt to separate army from politicsOttomanization
versus Turkificationthe C.U.P. splintersa British railwayBritish
penetration into Mesopotamiaa new naval programmea British snubrelations
deterioratethe threat of Pan-Islamisma change of emphasis in
Russiaforeign moneya scheme to employ German naval officers is nipped in the
buda new realismthe Baghdad Railway reconsideredItaly jumps the gun.
||The Turks Attract No Bids
||The Turco-Italian Waropening shotsItaly alienates her
friendsthe Foreign Office remains faithfulthe Turkish appeals for
interventionan effective guerrilla warthe Tcharykov intriguea Turkish
offer of allianceChurchills advocacyGrey adopts a conciliatory
linethe Admiralty is unconcernedwho will make the first move?a new
Russian initiativethe Russian Ambassador is disowned.
||A Harmless Sort of War
||The war does little damagethe hunt for
scapegoatsattacks upon the C.U.P. increase the Big Stick
electionItaly steps up the wara pointless attacka small victory for the
Concert of Europea Russian volte-facethe Dodecanese occupiedthe British
positionForeign Office concerns over the evacuation of the
MediterraneanCrowes memorandumthe C.U.P. is overthrowna
short-lived peace is achieved.
A Dangerous Season
||Internal unrestthe Balkan Leaguethe not-so-secret
treatythe First Balkan War the Turks are routedthe fall of
Constantinople loomsa new Grand Vizierthe delicate British positiona
Russian over-reactionthe Turkish line holdsan armistice and a conference in
Londona review of 1912new proposals for the Baghdad Railwaythe
Conference reconvenesthe problem of Adrianople.
||A coup is plannedthe pretextEnver and Talaat act to
prevent an ignominious peace the personalities of Enver and Talaata new reply
is senthostilities re-opened Lowther grows wearyFitzmaurice turns
against the Ambassadorthe final battle for Adrianoplethe fall of
Adrianoplethe Turks sue for peacethe Treaty of London the problem of the
Aegean Islandsa strong navyBritish Naval MissionLowthers alarming
The Open Mind
||Grey plans Lowthers recallKiamils coup is
forestalledthe assassination of the Grand Vizierthe consolidation of the
C.U.P.Talaat, Enver and Djemal come out into the opena new approach for a
defensive alliancethe credentials of the Ambassador-designatethe Second Balkan
Wara Bulgarian miscalculation Adrianople is re-takenthe preservation of
Ottoman integritythe Turks try the patience of the Powersthe problem of
coercionthe closed mind.
||Mallet a new direction?the German Military
Missionthe appointment of Liman von Sandersthe Russian reactionthe
delicate British positionthe difficulty of dealing with Sazonovthe comparison
with LimpusSazonov ups the stakesthe strength of the Entente put to the
testa possible concessionGreys predicament Mallets
conciliatory approachGerman intelligencethe collective inquiry to the Grand
Vizier Russia must be supported.
||The Unhappy Plight of Admiral Limpus
||Signs of a compromiseEnver becomes Minister for
WarLimans promotionthe crisis subsidesRussia considers her
optionsSazonovs standing is loweredpressure to strengthen the
Ententethe work of Admiral Limpusthe fate of the Brazilian
battleshipTurkey buys a dreadnoughtthe dockyard concessiona
rebukethe Admirals disillusionmentLimpus attempts to leave.
|| Russian Machinations
||The islands questiona new cause for
concernVenizelos makes mischiefLiman exceeds his remitthe Straits are
strengthenedthe Turks are annoyed, the British suspiciousa shift in German
policy?the Russians take a pragmatic linethe limitations of Russian foreign
policythe Turks offer an allianceSazonov vacillates Turkish naval
buildingtension with Greecethe curious case of the fortuitously delayed
||The easing of local tensionanother alliance
approachchanges in the Embassy Fitzmaurice is forced outMallet on
leaveGerman doubts begin to surfacea decision is reachedevery rifle is
requiredthe forced conversion of Ambassador Wangenheim the terms of the
TreatyAustria declares war on Serbiathe Russian mobilization Goeben is
requireda possible trade-off?an alliance is concluded.
||Churchills hand is forceda deliberate act of
policy?an inconvenient opinionpolicy or piracy?a race against
timeRaouf is dispossessedthe Turkish protestEnver puts a price on
Turkish assistancea double gameTurkish mobilizationthe Foreign Office
abandons hopeSaid Halim strikes a hard bargainconflicting reportsa
convergence of opinionthe position becomes clearer.
||Negotiate and Temporize
||Activity in Constantinoplea Bulgarian
compactEnvers unusual requesthis motives examinedthe Turks
temporizecontinued anger at the pre-emptionLimpus desires to be
recalledthe question of paymentprocrastination in LondonAdmiral Milne is
kept in the darka definite clue is receivedno action is taken the
performance of the Admiralty and Foreign Officethe conspiracy in Athens.
||The Bogus Sale
||Earnest entreatieswhere was Churchill?good news from
Constantinoplethe onerous burden of the Chargé DAffairesa clearer
indication of the Turkish attitude the German ships arrivedisbelief in
Londonfinal acceptancea provocative blockade?efforts to keep Turkey
neutralEnver prevaricatessanctuary is granted an inspired
compromisethe reaction in Londonrecognition of the fait accompli.
||The Turks Play a Double Game
||Goebens new refugeSouchon travels to
ConstantinopleSazonov reacts at last Greys cautious
approachChurchills personal appealthe anomalous position of Admiral
LimpusLimpus is sackedCrowes interventiona grand
ceremonysolemn assurancesstrategic optionsthe difficulty of achieving
surprisethe trap for Souchon Mallet returnsan immediate successa
new pragmatisman unwarranted complaintan assurance is givenMallet is
||The Forward Policy of Winston Churchill
||A generous offer?who rules at the Porte?Djemals
shopping listpatience wears thin no effort is made to repatriate the German
crewspatience is exhausteda signal to attackGerman gold to bribe the
Turksthe mission of Admiral Guido von Usedom a plan for British
actionChurchill applies the pressurethe assurance to Greecea less than
generous offerTalaat springs a surprisea new posting for LimpusMallet
objectsChurchills furyan unsatisfactory arrangementunseemly
hastethe Naval Mission departsvaried intelligence.
||The Last Hurrah for Said Halim
||The Dardanelles defencesunrelenting German
pressureEnvers authorizationa step too farSaid Halim rallies
supportthe victory is short-livedMallets rebuke Churchill renews
his attack upon MalletCardens new ordersa minor incidentthe
Straits are closedMallets surmisea lack of suitable agentsTalaat,
the pivotal figure?Kühlmanns missionEnvers mercenary
suggestionGermany buys Turkish actionhope is abandoned in London.
||The Private War
||Mallet stakes allEnvers secret arrangementthe
German planthe bombardment the burden of uncertainty is lifteda fatuous
demandlast minute Turkish doubtsno disavowal is possiblethe Embassy
staffs departForeign Office policy is defended Sazonov hesitatesthe
formula of Ottoman integrity is abandonedChurchills prompt blowchange at
the AdmiraltyFisher returnsLimpus urges cautiona futile
demonstrationits consequencepanic in Constantinoplethe declaration of
war Churchill orders a repeat dosethe Turkish responseChurchill
prevaricatesa private war.
A CABINET OF TIRED LAWYERS
||The Lure of the Dardanelles
||The attractions of the Dardanellesa right and obvious
methodno army is forth-comingthe effect of Cardens lucky
shotChurchills volatile mindthe exploits of B11 and Doristhe Turks
under-estimatedthe appalling prospect on the Western FrontHankeys
memorandumChurchills optionFishers cautioncompeting
pro-jectsLloyd George enters the fraythe higher direction of the wara
Russian appeal Enver takes chargea Turkish routKitcheners
pessimismno troops to spare playing the German game.
||An important adherentFishers crucial
contributionan important alterationa gibe its curious effectthe
inquiry to Cardenan alternative explanationNorthern possibilitiesa
limited action?planning for the Borkum operation continuesCardens
replyits effectAdmiral Jacksons cautious appraisalthe question of
timing intelligence from Constantinoplea window of opportunitythe debate
in the War CouncilKitchener now enthusesBalfour is prescient but
quietFisher loses his grip.
||A convergence of desiresChurchill holds to the Northern
optionCardens plan arrivesa novel suggestion from
Fisherconflicting signalsChurchills bombshell in the War
CouncilAsquiths curious conclusionsthe issue is fudgedChurchill
proposes, Fisher opposesFisher catches coldhis unease becomes
knownHankey intervenessend for Jellicoe?Churchill acts to silence the
oppositionFishers surprising reactiona sad spectacleHankey and
Fisher collaborateChurchill finds a scapegoatAsquiths lapse of judgment.
||Problems with the Frencha rebuffGreys support is
enlisteda further precaution Churchill cannot risk the French obtaining
commandThe First Lord has his way Augagneur is convincedthe Grand Duke
is dealt withthe Russians are surprised Fisher makes a standAsquith
stands firma scene in the War CouncilKitcheners athletic
interventionwere the risks made clear?a trade-offFishers reluctant
||An immediate meeting is convenedtacit acceptancethe
power of naval weaponrya misapprehensionHankeys concerna new
French initiativethe prevarications of Premier Venizelosthe question of troops
a new offer to GreeceHankeys calculating assentKitchener has
second thoughts pressure is appliedthe effect of the opening
bombardmenttroops are committed.
||The Oil Equation
||A hidden agenda?a Persian oil concession is
grantedAdmiralty trialsoil to be used as an adjunct onlythe competition
is eliminatedDArcys lack of successFisher, the oil maniacthe
last-minute strikethe new menaceChurchill, another convertthe Pakenham
Committeethe Royal Commission on Oil Fuela forgone conclusion? the quest
for the Mesopotamian concessionGreenways alarming evidenceFisher is
unconcernedthe advantages of oila surprise recommendationthe Commission
bites backAPOC vs. Shellthe question of price.
||Admiralty and Oil
||The Admiralty balks at Greenways termsthe need for
capitalIndian participation? Churchills important
memorandumcompeting standardsChurchill argues persuasivelythe debate is
inconclusivethe decision to revert to coal in the Revenge class the Admiralty
tries to enlist the support of the India Officethe logical conclusion the
Admiralty enters the oil businessthe last opposition is silencedAnglo-Turkish
negotiationsAdmiral Slades commissiona multitude of applicationsa
deal is done the Fusion Agreementa final complication.
||A Hostage to Fortune
||Anglo-Persian makes a move on the Mesopotamian fieldsthe
question of direct influence in Mesopotamiathe Admiralty positionthe Admiralty
and Foreign Office clashthe problem of overt British participationthe
undesirability of reciprocal rights the negotiations stallthe finalization of
the APOC dealChurchills five conditions harsh criticismappeasing
the Russians and Shellthe test of warthe British position in the Gulf
securedthe fate of ConstantinopleRussian apprehension confusion amongst
the alliesno way to run a war.
||The Great Prize
||The Director of Naval Intelligence and his private
initiativethe reappearance of Fitzmauricesecret Anglo-Turkish
talkssomething more than moneyelectrifying newsFishers hasty
reactiona secondary bombardmentan approach to the Vali of Smyrnathe
promise of a coupGrey has no room to manoeuvrethe failure of these
attemptsthe question of Greek participationGreys innocuous
statementRussian apprehension turns to alarmfears of a separate
peaceanother sweeping offer by Venizelosthe Russian vetoa
compromise?Foreign Office objectionsthe issue is decided in Athensthe
Tsars decreea link between Constantinople and Persia?the Russian
proposal is debateda quid pro quothe fate of the neutral zone in
Persiathe consideration of British desideratasummary.
||The Turks routedBulgaria sues for peaceTurkish peace
feelersthe troublesome question of commandClemenceau and Lloyd George trade
argumentsa new Ministrythe egregious General Townshendan unseemly
altercationthe vital four conditionsthe Turkish positiontheir desire to
deal solely with the Britishthe question of unconditional surrenderthe Turkish
delegates arrivethe Armistice termsdifficulty over the
conditionsproblems with the Frenchthe Armistice is signedthe hard-line
Foreign Office attitudea final word.
||Formal Text of the Turco-German Alliance of 2 August 1914.
||The Shirey Story.
||A Pertinent Exchange of Letters.
||The Sultan And His Executive.
||Extracts From A Memorandum By Mr. Adam Block Respecting
Franco-German Economic Penetration Up To 1906.
||Turkish Armistice Terms.
||Defence of the Suez Canal, Narrative of Events, 25 January to 8
||List of Grand Viziers, 1908 to 1919.
||List of Alternative Place Names
||Memorandum by the General Staff Upon the Possibility of a Joint
Naval and Military Attack Upon the Dardanelles.