THE MILLSTONE: British Naval Policy in the Mediterranean, 1900-1914, the Commitment to France and British Intervention in the War © Geoffrey Miller





THE MILLSTONE: British Naval Policy in the Mediterranean, 1900-1914, the Commitment to France and British Intervention in the War © Geoffrey Miller



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The Millstone


British Naval Policy in the Mediterranean, 1900-1914, the Commitment to France and British Intervention in the War

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Please note that the following list applies to the complete "Straits" trilogy.


Abbas II, Hilmi


Khedive of Egypt, 1892-1914. Educated at Vienna.

Abdul Hak Hamid Bey


Councillor of Turkish Embassy at London, 1898-1908

Abdul Hamid I


Sultan of Turkey, 1876-1909

Abruzzi, Vice-Ammiraglio Luigi Amedeo di Savoia-Aosta, Duke of the


Italian Inspector of Torpedo Craft, 1911-12; Commander-in-Chief, Italian Fleet at Taranto, 1914-17.

Ackermann, Kapitän zur See Richard


Captain, SMS Goeben, 1914.

A’Court-Repington, Lt-Col. Charles


British Military Attaché at Brussels and the Hague, 1899-1902; Military Correspondent of the Times, 1904-18.

Aehrenthal Alois, Baron Lexa Von (Count from 1909)


Austro-Hungarian Ambassador at St. Petersburgh, 1899-1906; Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1906-1912

H.R.H. Prince Alexander


Crown Prince of Servia since 1909

Ali Jevad Bey


1st Secretary to the Sultan of Turkey, 1908

Amet, Contre-Amiral (later Vice-Amiral) Jean François Charles


Commanded Allied Squadron in the Aegean, 1918.

Arif Pasha


Turkish Governor of Adrianople, 1907; Minister of Marine, 1909.

Aristidi Pasha


Second Vice-President of the Turkish Chamber of Deputies, 1908.

Asquith, Herbert Henry


Liberal MP, 1886-1918, 1920-4. Home Secretary, 1892-5; Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1905-8; Prime Minister, 1908-16; Secretary of State for War, 30 March-5 August, 1914.

Augagneur, Victor


French Minister of Marine, 1914-8.

Avarna, Duke D’


Italian Ambassador at Vienna, 1904-15.

Babington-Smith, Sir Henry


Director of the National Bank of Turkey, 1909-13.

Balfour, Sir Arthur James (later the Earl of Balfour)


Conservative MP, 1874-85, 1885-1906, 1906-22. First Lord of the Treasury, 1891-2, 1895-1902; Prime Minister, 1902-5; First Lord of the Admiralty, 1915-6; Foreign Secretary, 1916-9.

Ballard, Rear-Admiral George Alexander


Assistant Director of the Intelligence Department; Director of the Operations Division, Admiralty; Admiral of Patrols, East Coast, 1914-16; Senior Naval Officer, Malta, 1916-18.

Barclay, Mr. C. A. De R.


2nd Secretary at British Embassy at Paris, 1900-4; at Rio de Janeiro, 1904-6; 1st Secretary at British Legation at Bucharest, 1907-8 (sometimes Chargé d’Affaires); at Sofia, 1908.

Barclay, Mr. (since 1908, Sir) G. H.


2nd Secretary at British Embassy, Constantinople, 1898-1902; Secretary of Legation (later Councillor) at Tokyo, 1902-6; Councillor of Embassy at Constantinople, 1906-8 (sometimes Chargé d’Affaires); Minister at Tehran, 1908-1912; at Bucharest, 1912-18.

Barrère, M. Camille


French Ambassador at Rome, 1897-1924.

Barrington, Sir Eric


Private Secretary to the Marquess of Lansdowne, 1900-5; Assistant Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1906-7.

Battenberg, Prince Louis Alexander of (later Admiral of the Fleet, Marquess of Milfordhaven)


Director of Naval Intelligence, 1903-5; commanded 2nd Cruiser Squadron, 1905-7; second in command, Mediterraneanm 1908; C-in-C, Atlantic Fleet, 1910; Second Sea Lord, 1911; First Sea Lord, 1912-4.

Bayly, Vice-Admiral Sir Lewis


Commander of the 3rd Battle Squadron, 1913-4; 1st Battle Squadron, 1914-15.

Bax-Ironside, Sir Henry George Outram


British Minister at Berne, 1909-11; at Sofia, 1911-15.

Beatty, Admiral David


Naval Secretary to the First Lord, 1912; in command of the 1st Battle Cruiser Squadron from 1914; C-in-C, Grand Fleet, 1916-19; First Sea Lord, 1919-27.

Beaumont, Sir Henry


Counsellor at Athens, 1910-4; Counsellor at Constantinople, 1914 (Chargé d’Affaires July-August 1914).

Benckendorff, Count Alexander


Russian Ambassador at London, 1903-17.

Berchtold, Leopold, Count Von


Austro-Hungarian Ambassador at St. Petersburgh, 1906-11; Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1912-15..

Beresford, Admiral Sir Charles William de la Poer


Conservative MP, 1874-80, 1885-9, 1897-1900, 1902, 1910-6. Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean, 1905-7; Channel, 1907-9.

Bertie, Sir Francis Leveson (since 1915, 1st Baron; 1918, 1st Viscount)


British Ambassador at Rome, 1903-4; at Paris, 1905-18.

Bethmann-Hollweg, Herr Theobald von


Prussian Minister of the Interior, 1905-7; German Minister for the Interior, 1907-9; German Imperial Chancellor, 1909-17.

Bienaimé, Amiral Amadée


Conducted the French parliamentary inquiry into the Goeben affair.

Black, Sir Frederick William


Director of Naval Contracts, 1905-15; managing director, Anglo-Persian Oil Company, 1919-23.

Block, Sir Adam Samuel James


Chief Dragoman to the British Embassy at Constantinople, 1894-1903; Representative of the British and Dutch Bondholders on the Council of the Ottoman Public Debt, 1903; President of the British Chamber of Commerce from 1907 to 1914.

Bompard, M. Maurice


French Ambassador at St Petersburg, 1902-8; at Constantinople, 1909-14.

Borden, Sir Robert Laird


Prime Minister of Canada, 1911-20.

Bridgeman, Admiral Sir Francis Charles


Commander-in-Chief, Home Fleet, 1907-9; First Sea Lord, 1911-2. Removed to make way for Battenberg.

Brodrick, William St. John Fremantle (9th Viscount Midleton & 1st Earl of Midleton)


Conservative MP, 1880-1906; Secretary of State for War, 1900-3.

Brown, Captain (later Vice-Admiral) Francis Clifton


Head of the Naval Mission to Greece, 1917-19.

Buchanan, Sir George William


British Agent and Consul-General in Bulgaria, 1903-9; Ambassador at St Petersburg, 1910-18; at Rome, 1919-21.

Bülow, Herr Alfred Von


German Minister at Berne, 1898-1912.

Bülow, Bernard Count Von (since 1905, Prince)


German Imperial Chancellor, 1900-09.

Burney, Vice-Admiral Sir Cecil


A member of the Troubridge court-martial bench.

Buxton, Noel Edward


Liberal MP, 1905-6, 1910-18. Labour MP, 1922-30. Co-founded the Balkan Committee, 1903.

Calice, Heinrich Baron Von


Austro-Hungarian Ambassador at Constantinople, 1880-1906.

Callaghan, Sir George Astley, Admiral


Admiral commanding the First and Second Fleets, 1911-14; Commander-in-Chief, the Nore, 1915-18.

Callwell, Major-General Charles Edward


Intelligence Branch, War Office, 1887-92. Retired from the Army in 1909 and recalled to the active list in 1914. Director of Military Operations and Intelligence, 1914-6.

Cambon, M. Jules


French Ambassador at Madrid, 1902-7; at Berlin, 1907-14.

Cambon, M. Paul


French Ambassador at London, 1898-1920.

Campbell-Bannerman, Sir Henry


Liberal MP, 1868-1908; Prime Minister, 5 December 1905-4 April 1908.

Carden, Vice-Admiral Sackville Hamilton


Admiral Superintendent, Malta, 1912-4; Commander of the Anglo-French Squadrons in the Eastern Mediterranean 20 September 1914-16 March 1915.

Carnegie, Mr. L. D.


Councillor of British Embassy at Vienna, 1907-8 (sometimes Chargé d’Affaires).

Cartwright, Sir Fairfax L.


Councillor of British Embassy at Madrid, 1905-6; Minister Resident at Munich and Stuttgart, 1906-8; Ambassador at Vienna, 1908-13.

Cassel, Sir Ernest


British Financier.

Chamberlain, Right Hon. Joseph


Secretary of State for the Colonies, 1895-1903.

Chamberlain, Joseph Austen


Conservative MP, 1892-1937. Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1903-5.

H.M. King Charles I


King of Roumania, 1881-1914.

Chirol, Mr. (later Sir) Valentine


Director of the Foreign Department of the Times, 1899-1912.

Church, Captain W. D.


Captain, HMS Weymouth, 1914.

Churchill, Sir Winston


President of the Board of Trade, 1908-10; Home Secretary, 1910-11; First Lord of the Admiralty, 1911-5.

Clemenceau, M. Georges


French Minister of the Interior, 1906; Premier and Minister of the Interior, 1906-9; Premier and Minister of War, 1917-20.

Clerk, Sir George R.


First Secretary at Constantinople, 1910-2; Senior Clerk at the Foreign Office (Eastern Department), 1913-4.

Condouriotis, Admiral Paul


Commander-in-Chief, Greek navy.

Constans, M. Jean E.


French Ambassador at Constantinople, 1899-1909.



King of Greece, 1913-17 and 1920-2.

Coode, Captain Charles Penrose Rushton


Commanded 5th destroyer flotilla, 1914-17.

Corbett, Sir Julian


Naval historian.

Cradock, Rear-Admiral Sir Christopher


Rear-Admiral Commanding North America & West Indies Station, 1913-14. Killed at Coronel.

Crawford, Sir Richard Frederick


Customs Adviser to the Ottoman Government, 1904-11; Adviser to the Ottoman Ministry of Finance, 1911-14.

Crease, Commander Thomas Evars


Naval Assistant to the First Sea Lord, 1914-15.

Crewe, Marquess


Secretary of State for the Colonies, 1908-10; Secretary of State for India, 1910-15.

Cromer, 1st Earl of (Evelyn Baring)


British Consul-General and Agent in Egypt, 1883, 1885-1907.

Crowe, Mr. (later Sir) Eyre


Entered Foreign Office, 1885. Senior Clerk, British Foreign Office, 1906-12; Assistant Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, 1912-20; Permanent Under-Secretary, 1920-5.

Crozier, M.


French Ambassador at Vienna, 1907-12.

Culme-Seymour, Rear-Admiral (later Vice-Admiral Sir) Michael


Director of Mobilization, Admiralty, 1916-18; commanded British Aegean Squadron, 1918.

Cunliffe-Owen, Major Frederick


Attached to the Greek Army during the Balkan Wars, 1912-3; Military Attaché to Turkey, 1913-4. Lieutenant-Colonel, October 1914.

Curzon of Kedleston, George Nathaniel, 1st Baron


Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1895-8; Viceroy and Governor-General of India,  1899-1905.

Darrieus, Contre-Amiral (later Vice-Amiral) Pierre Joseph Gabriel Georges


Commanded Division des écoles de la Méditerranée, 1913; commanded 3e escadre (Syrian Coast), 1914-15; commanded 2e escadre, 1916-18.

Dartige du Fournet, Vice-Amiral Louis René


Senior Admiral of International Squadron at Constantinople, 1912-13; Préfet Maritime, Bizerta, 1913-15.

De Bunsen, Sir Maurice William Ernest


First Secretary and Chargé d’Affaires at Constantinople, 1897-1902; at Paris, 1902-5; Minister at Lisbon, 1905-6; Ambassador at Madrid, 1906-13; at Vienna, 1913-14.

Delcassé, M. Théophile


French Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1898-1905 and 1914-9.

Demidov, Alim Pavlovich, Prince of San Donato


Russian Minister to Athens, 1912-7.

De Salis, Midshipman (later Captain) A. F.


Midshipman, HMS Defence, 1914.

Deterding, Henri Wilhelm August


Director-General of Royal Dutch Petroleum.

Deville, Gabriel Pierre


French Minister to Athens, 1909-15.

Dewar, Commander (later Vice-Admiral) Kenneth


Commander, HMS Prince of Wales, Home Fleet, 1914.

Dickens, Commander (later Admiral Sir) Gerald Charles


Commanded HMS Harpy, 5th destroyer flotilla, 1914.

Dillon, Dr. Emile Joseph


Philologist, author and journalist. Daily Telegraph correspondent, 1887-1914.

Djavid, Pasha


Turkish Deputy for Salonica, member of the CUP inner circle. Minister of Finance, 1909-11, 1912-

Djemal Pasha, Ahmed


Member of the CUP Central Committee. Vali of Adana, 1909; of Baghdad, 1911; Military Governor of Constantinople, 1913; Minister of Public Works, 1914; Minister of Marine, 1914; commanded the 4th Army in Syria, 1914-7; Minister of Marine, 1917-8..

Djevad Bey


Turkish Councillor of Embassy at London, 1908-14.

Domvile, Commander Barry


Assistant Secretary, Committee of Imperial Defence, 1914.

Dönitz, Karl


Junior officer, SMS Breslau, 1914.

Douglas, General Sir Charles Wittingham Horsley


Chief of the Imperial General Staff, 4 August-25 October, 1914.

Dumas, Captain (later Admiral) Philip Wylie


Naval Attaché, Germany, Denmark and Holland, 1906-8; Secretary, Royal Commission on Oil Fuel, 1912-13; commanded HMS Roxburgh, 1913-14; Assistant Director of Torpedoes, Admiralty, 1914-17; commanded HMS Agamemnon, 1917-18.

Durham, Miss M. E.


Balkan Correspondent of the Manchester Guardian, etc.

Edhem Pasha, Marshal


Turkish Minister of War, 1909.

Egerton, Admiral Sir George Le Clerc


President of the Court at Troubridge’s court-martial.

Eldridge, Mr. E. F. A. J.


British Acting Vice-Consul at Smyrna, 1894-7; 1901-6; Acting Consul-General, 1903-14.

Elliot, Sir Francis Edmund Hugh


British Agent and Consul-General in Bulgaria, 1895-1903; Minister at Athens, 1903-17.

Emin Pasha


Turkish Minister of Marine, 1909.

Enver Pasha


Turkish Military Attaché at Berlin, 1909, 1912, 1913; served in the Italo-Turkish War, 1912; Lieutenant-Colonel, 1913; Major-General and Minister of War from 1914; commanded the Turkish Army in the Caucasus, 1914-5.

Errington, Viscount (since 1917, 2nd Earl of Cromer)


Private Secretary to Sir Charles Hardinge, 1907-10.

Erskine, Rt Hon. Sir William


Second son of the 11th Earl of Mar and Kellie. First Secretary, British Legation, Athens, 1913-17.

Esher, 2nd Viscount (Reginald Baliol Brett)


Liberal MP, 1880-5. A permanent member of the Committee of Imperial Defence, 1905-18.

Essad Pasha


Commander of the Turkish IIIrd Army Corps, 1907-8. Leader of a provisional Albanian Government from October 1914.

Ewart, Lt-Gen. Sir John Spencer


Director of Military Operations, 1906-10.

Eyres, Mr. (later Sir) H. C. A.


British Consul-General at Constantinople, 1905-14

Fakhri Pasha, Ferik


Turkish Vali of Monastir, 1908.

Fallières, M. Armand


President of the French Republic, 1906-13.

Fehim Pasha


Head of the Secret Police in Constantinople.

HRH Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria, 1887-1909; HM the King of Bulgaria, 1909-18.


HM the King of Bulgaria, 1909-18.

Ferid Pasha


Turkish Grand Vizier, 1903-8; Minister of the Interior, 1908-9.

Fisher, Admiral Sir John Arbuthnot (later Admiral of the Fleet, Lord Fisher of Kilverstone)


Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Squadron, 1900-2; Second Sea Lord, 1902; C-in-C, Portsmouth, 1903; First Sea Lord, 1904-10 and October 1914-May 1915. Head of the Royal Commission on Fuel and Engines, 1912-4. Created Baron, 1909.

Fitzmaurice, Lord Edmond George (since 1906, 1st Baron Fitzmaurice of Leigh)


Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1883-5, 1905-8.

Fitzmaurice, Gerald Henry


Student Interpreter, 1888; acting Vice-Consul at Van, 1891-2; at Erzeroum, 1892-3; at Trebizond, 1893; acting Third Dragoman at British Embassy, Constantinople, 1894-5; Vice-Consul at Smyrna, 1895-6; at Adana, 1896; Third Dragoman, 1897; Consul at Salonica, 1900-1; at the Dardanelles, 1902; Consul at Constantinople, 1905; 2nd Dragoman at Embassy at Constantinople, 1906-7; Chief Dragoman, 1907-12.

Forgách Von Ghymes Und Gács, Count


Austro-Hungarian Minister at Belgrade, 1907-11.

Franchet d’Esperey, General (later Marshal) Louis Félix


Fifth Army, 1914; commanded Army Group of the East, 1916; Army Group of the North, 1917; Army Group of the Centre, 1918; Allied C-in-C, Salonica, June-November 1918.

H.I.M. Franz Jospeh I


Emperor of Austria from 1848 and King of Hungary from 1867.

Fremantle, Rear-Admiral (later Admiral Sir) Sydney


Prosecutor, Troubridge court-martial; commanded British Aegean Squadron, 1917-18; Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff, 1918-19.

French, Field-Marshal Sir John Denton Pinkstone


Chief of the Imperial General Staff, 1912-4; Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force, 1914-1915.

Gamble, Rear-Admiral (later Admiral) Douglas Austin


Naval Adviser to Turkish Government, 1909-10; commander, 6th Cruiser Squadron, 1910-4; 4th Battle Squadron, 1914-5; Admiralty War Staff, 1915-17.

Gauchet, Vice-Amiral Dominique Marie


Directeur, Service des Travaux, 1914; commanded French Squadron at the Dardanelles, 1915-16; nominal Allied C-in-C, Mediterranean, 1916-19.

Gauthier, Dr Armand Elzéar


French Minister of Marine, 1914.

Gennadius, John


Greek Minister to London, 1910-8.

George, David Lloyd


Liberal MP, 1890-1931. Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1908-15; Minister of Munitions, 1915-16; Prime Minister & First Lord of the Treasury, 1916-22.

Ghazi Ahmed Mukhtar, Pasha


President of the Turkish Senate, 1911; Grand Vizier, July-October 1912.

Giers, M. Michael Nikolaevich de


Russian Minister at Bucharest, 1902-12; Ambassador at Constantinople, 1912-4; at Rome, 1915-7.

Girouard, Edouard Percy Cranwill


Director of Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., 1912; Director-General of Munitions Supply, 1915-7.

Goltz, General Colmar von der


German general on loan to reorganize the Ottoman Army, 1883-95, 1908-11; Commander, 1st Turkish Army, Mesopotamia, April 1915-April 1916..

Goschen, Sir William Edward


British Ambassador at Vienna, 1905-8; at Berlin, 1908-14.

Gough-Calthorpe, Vice-Admiral (later Admiral of the Fleet) Sir Arthur


Commanded 2nd Cruiser Squadron, 1914-16; Second Sea Lord, 1916; C-in-C, Mediterranean, 1917-19.

Graves, Mr (later Sir) Robert W.


British Consul-General at Salonica, 1903-8; Delegate on the International Financial Commission in Macedonia, 1907; Adviser to the Ottoman Ministry of Finance, 1909-14; Inspector-General and Adviser to the Ottoman Ministry of the Interior, 1914..

Greene, Sir William Graham


Principal Clerk, Admiralty, 1902-7; Assistant Secretary, 1907-11; Permanent Secretary, 1911-7.

Grey, Sir Edward (since 1916, Viscount)


Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 11 December 1905 — 11 December 1916.

Grierson, Major-Gen. Sir James Moncrieff


Director of Military Operations, 1904-6.

Gryparis, M.


Greek Minister at Constantinople, 1903-10.

Guépratte, Contre-Amiral (later Vice-Amiral) Emile Paul Aimable


Commanded division de complément, August 1914; Escadre des Dardanelles, September 1914-May 1915.

Guéshov, M.


Bulgarian Agent at Constantinople, 1906-7.

Gwinner, Herr von


Deutsche Bank.

Hakki Pasha


Turkish Minister of the Interior and of Public Instruction, 1908-9; Ambassador to Rome, 1909-10; Grand Vizier, January 1910-September 1911; conducted negotiations with the British Government regarding Mesopotamia and the Persian Gulf, 1913-14.

Haldane, Richard Burdon (since 1911, 1st Viscount)


Liberal MP, 1885-1911. Secretary of State for War, 1905-12; Lord Chancellor, 1912-5..

Halil Pasha


Chairman of the Turkish Chamber of Deputies.

Halim, Pasha, Mehmed Saïd


President of the Council of State, 1912; Minister for Foreign Affairs and Grand Vizier, 1913-17.

Hall, Rear-Admiral (later Admiral Sir) William Reginald


Director of the Intelligence Division at the Admiralty, 1914-8.

Hamilton, Vice-Admiral Sir Frederick Tower


Second Sea Lord, 1914-6.

Hanbury-Williams, General Sir John


Chief of the British Military Mission, Russian Army in the Field, 1914-7.

Hankey, Maurice Pascal Alers (later 1st Baron Hankey)


Entered Royal Marine Artillery, 1895; Captain, 1899. Naval Intelligence Department, 1902-7; Assistant Secretary of the Committee of Imperial Defence, 1908-12; Secretary, C.I.D., 1912-38; of the War Council, November 1914-May 1915; of the Dardanelles Committee, May-November 1915; of the Cabinet War Committee, December 1915-December 1916; of the War Cabinet, 1916-8. Lieutenant-Colonel, Royal Marines, 1914.

Hardinge, Sir Charles (since 1910, 1st Baron Hardinge of Penshurst)


Assistant Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1903-4; Ambassador at St. Petersburg, 1904-6; Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1906-10; Viceroy and Governor-General of India, 1910-6; Ambassador at Paris, 1920-2.

Hassan Fehmi Pasha


Turkish President of the Council of State, 1907; Minister of Justice.

Hassan Rahmi Pasha


Turkish Admiral, Minister of Marine, 1907.

Haus, Admiral Anton


Commander-in-Chief of the Austro-Hungarian navy.

Hayes-Sadler, Rear-Admiral (later Vice-Admiral) Arthur


Commanded HMS Ocean, 1914-15; Rear-Admiral, Salonica and Piraeus, 1916-17; commanded British Aegean Squadron, 1918. Relieved by the Admiralty after the Goeben sortie of January 1918.

Hicks-Beach, Sir M.


Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1895-1902.

Holbrook, Lieutanent Norman, VC


Commanded submarine at Dardanelles, 1914.

Hopwood, Sir Francis John Stephens


Additional Civil Lord, Admiralty, 1912-7.

Horniman, Rear-Admiral Henry


Fleet Paymaster, HMS Inflexible, 1914.

Huguet, Major (later Colonel)


French Military Attaché at London, 1906-11.

Humann, Korvettenkapitän Hans


Son of a noted archaeologist. Commander of the German Naval base (Etappenkommando), Constantinople, 1914. Formerly commander of Loreley, the German stationnaire at the Porte.

Husni Pasha


Turkish Ambassador at St Petersburg, 1889-1908.

Hussein Hilmi Pasha


Turkish Inspector General of Macedonia, 1902-8; Minister of the Interior, 1908-9; Grand Vizier, 1909; Ambassador at Vienna, 1912-18.

Hussein Husni Pasha


Turkish Commander of the Investing Army, 1909.

Ibrahim Pasha


Commander in Chief of Turkish IIIrd Army Corps, 1908-9.

Ibrahim Fethi Pasha


Turkish Minister at Belgrade, 1897-1908.

Ibrahim Hakki Pasha


Legal Adviser to the Sublime Porte, 1906; Minister of the Interior and Public Instruction, 1909; Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1909-11.

Isvolsky, M. Alexander


Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1906-10; Ambassador at Paris, 1910-7..

Jackson, Admiral Sir Henry Brawardine


Commanded RN War College, 1911-13; Chief of Admiralty War Staff, 1913; was destined to replace Milne as C-in-C, Medt., 1914, but appointment rescinded; First Sea Lord, May 1915-Decemebr 1916; President, RN College, Greenwich, 1916-19.

Jackson, Rear-Admiral (later Admiral Sir) Thomas


Director of the Intelligence Division, War Staff, 1912-13; Director of the Operations Division, January 1915-June 1917; C-in-C, Egypt and Red Sea, July 1917-January 1919.

Jagow, Gottlieb von


German Foreign Secretary, 1913-6.

Jellicoe, Admiral (later Admiral of the Fleet) Sir John Rushworth


Second Sea Lord, 1912-14; Commander-in-Chief of the Grand Fleet, 1914-6; First Sea Lord, 1916-7. Created Viscount, 1918; 1st Earl, 1925.

Jevad Bey


Turkish Councillor of Embassy at London, 1908-14.

Joffre, General Joseph Jacques Césaire


Chief of French General Staff, 1911; C-in-C, French Armies in north and north-east, 1914; C-in-C of French Armies in the west, 1915-16.

Kelly, Captain (later Admiral Sir) William A. Howard


Commanded HMS Gloucester, 1914-16; liaison officer at French Ministry of Marine, 1916-17.

Kelly, Captain John D.


Commanded HMS Dublin, 1914.

Kennedy, Captain Francis


Commanded HMS Indomitable, 1914.

Kerr, Philip Henry (later 11th Marquess of Lothian)


Secretary to Lloyd George, 1916-21.

Kerr, Rear-Admiral (later Admiral) Mark Edward Frederic


Naval Attaché, Italy, Austria, Turkey and Greece, 1903-4. Head of the British Naval Mission to Greece and Commander-in-Chief of the Greek Navy, 1913-5; first flag officer to qualify as a pilot, 1914; Commander-in-Chief of the British Squadron in the Adriatic, 1916-7; Major-General, Royal Air Force, 1918; Deputy Chief of the Air Staff, 1918.

Kettner, Commander


Commanded SMS Breslau, 1914.

Kiamil Pasha


Turkish Grand Vizier, 1885-91, 1895; Vali of Smyrna, 1895-1906; Grand Vizier, August 1908-February 1909, October 1912-January 1913.

Kiderlen-Waechter, Herr von


German Minister at Bucharest, 1899-1910; Attached to German Foreign Office, 1908-9; Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1910-2.

Kitchener, General Sir Herbert (later Earl Kitchener)


Sirdar of the Egyptian Army, 1892-9; Commander-in-Chief, India, 1902-9; Agent and Consul-General at Cairo, 1911-4; Secretary of State for War, 1914-6.

Kühlmann, Herr Richard von


Councillor of German Embassy at London, 1908-14; on missions to Turkey and Scandinavia, 1915-7; Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1917-8.

Lamb, Mr (since 1919, Sir) Harry Harling


Chief Dragoman to the British Embassy at Constantinople, 1903-7; Consul-General at Salonica, 1907-13; at the Foreign Office, 1914-8.

Lambert, Captain (later Admiral Sir) Cecil Foley


4th Sea Lord, 1913-6; commanded 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron 1916-18; commanded British Aegean Squadron, 1918.

Lamsdorff, Count


Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1901-6.

Lansdowne, The 5th Marquess of,


Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 12 November 1900 — 11 December 1905.

Lapeyrère, Vice-Admiral Auguste Emmanuel Hubert Gaston Marie Boué de


French Minister of Marine, 1909-11; C-in-C, Première Armée Navale, 1911-15; Vice-Admiral Commanding the Allied Naval forces, Mediterranean, 1914-5.

Larken, Captain (later Admiral Sir) Frank


Commanded HMS Doris in Eastern Mediterranean, 1914-16.

Lascelles, Sir Frank Cavendish


British Ambassador at Berlin, 1895-1908.

Law, Andrew Bonar


Conservative MP, 1900-10, 1911-23. Leader of the Opposition from 1911.

Le Bris, Vice-Amiral Pierre Ange Marie


Directeur du service des travaux, 1912; conducted secret talks with Battenberg, 1913; commanded 2e escadre, 1914-15.

Leveson, Rear-Admiral Arthur Cavenagh


Director of the Operations Division, Admiralty, 1914-15.

Liman von Sanders, General (later Field Marshal) Otto


Head of the German Military Mission to Turkey, 1913-4; Inspector-General of Turkish Army, 1914; commanded Turkish 5th Army at Gallipoli, 1915-6..

Limpus, Rear-Admiral (later Admiral) Sir Arthur


British Naval Adviser to the Turkish Government, 1912-4; Admiral-Superintendent, Malta, 1914-6.

Lloyd, George Ambrose (later 1st Baron)


Honorary Attaché, Constantinople, 1905-7.

Long, Walter (later 1st Viscount Long)


Conservative MP, 1880-1921.

Louis, M. Georges


Political Director at the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1905-8.

Lowther, Sir G. A.


British Minister at Tangier, 1905-8; Ambassador at Constantinople, 1908-13.

Lynch, H. F. B.


Partner in the Euphrates Steam Navigation Company.

Lyttelton, Hon. Sir Neville, General


Chief of the General Staff, War Office, 1904-8.

McKenna, Reginald


Liberal MP, 1895-1918. First Lord of the Admiralty, 1908-11; Home Secretary, 1911-5; Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1915-6.

Mackenzie, Sir Edward Montague Compton


Author; worked for British Intelligence in Greece from 1915.

Macleay, Mr J. W. R.


2nd Secretary at the British Embassy, Constantinople, 1905-7; Chargé d’Affaires at Belgrade, 1907.

Macnair, Midshipman (later Captain) J. H.


Midshipman, HMS Inflexible, 1914.

Mahmud Mukhtar Pasha


Turkish Commander of 1st Army Corps, 1909.

Malinov, M.


Bulgarian President of the Council, 1908-11.

Mallet, Sir Louis du Pan


Assistant Clerk, British Foreign Office, 1902-5; Private Secretary to Sir Edward Grey, 1905-6; Senior Clerk, 1906-7; Assistant Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1907-13; Ambassador at Constantinople, 1913-14.

Marling, Mr (later Sir) Charles M.


Councillor of British Embassy at Tehran, 1906-8; Councillor and Chargé d’Affaires at Constantinople, 1908-13.

Marschall von Bieberstein, Adolf Baron


German Ambassador at Constantinople, 1897-1912; at London, 1912.

Marsh, Sir Edward


Private Secretary to Churchill from 1905.

Masterton-Smith, James Edward


Private Secretary to the First Lord of the Admiralty, 1910-17.

Maxwell, Mr R. P.


Senior Clerk in British Foreign Office, 1902-13.

May, Admiral of the Fleet Sir William


Third Sea Lord, 1901; C-in-C, Atlantic Fleet, 1905; Second Sea Lord, 1907; C-in-C, Home Fleet, 1909-11; C-in-C, Plymouth, 1911-13.

Mehmed Reshad Effendi


Sultan of Turkey, 1909-18.

Mehmed Riza Pasha


Turkish Minister of War, 1895-1908.

Mensdorff-Pouilly-Dietrichstein, Albert Count


1st Secretary at the Austro-Hungarian Embassy at London, 1904; Ambassador at London, 1904-14.

Mercier de Lostende, Capitaine de Vaisseau (later Contre-Amiral)


French Naval Attaché at London, 1905-11; 1916-18.

Metternich, Count Paul von Wolff-


German Ambassador at London, 1901-12.

Meux, Admiral Sir Hedworth


C-in-C, Portsmouth, 1912-16; President of the Court of Inquiry convened to investigate Troubridge’s conduct.

Millerand, Alexandre


French Minister of War, January 1912-January 1913 and January 1914-October 1915.

Milne, Admiral Sir Archibald Berkeley


Second in command, Atlantic Fleet, 1905; second in command, Channel, 1908; commanded 2nd division, Home Fleet, 1909-10; Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean Squadron, 1912-4.

Milne, Lt-General (later Field Marshal) Sir George Francis


Chief Staff Officer, III Corps, 1914; commanded 27th Division, 1915; commanded XVI Corps, 1916; Commander-in-Chief, British Salonica Force, 1916-18.

Milovanovic, M.


Serbian Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1908-12.

Montgomery, Mr (later Sir) C. H.


Private Secretary to Lord Fitzmaurice, 1904-5; to Sir C. Hardinge, 1906-7.

Moore, Admiral Sir Archibald Gordon


Naval assistant to Admiral Fisher, 1907-8; Director of Naval Ordnance and Torpedoes, 1909-12; Third Sea Lord, 1912-14; Commander of the 2nd Battle Cruiser Squadron, 1914.

Morgenthau, Henry


American Ambassador at Constantinople, 1913-6.

Morley, John, Viscount Morley


Liberal MP, 1883-1908. Secretary of State for India, 1905-10; Lord President of the Council, 1910-4.

Murray, General Sir James Wolfe


Chief of the Imperial General Staff, October 1914-September 1915.

Musurus Pasha


Turkish Ambassador at London, 1903-8.

Napier, Lt.-Col. Henry Dundas


British Military Attaché at Belgrade, 1908-14.

Nazim Bey


Head of Military police at Salonica, 1908.

Niaza Bey



H. I. M. Nicholas II


Emperor of Russia, 1894-1917.

Nicholson, Field Marshal Sir William Gustavus (since 1912, 1st Baron)


Chief of the Imperial General Staff, 1908-12.

Nicolson, Sir Arthur (since 1916, 1st Baron Carnock)


British Ambassador at Madrid, 1905-6; at St Petersburg, 1906-10; Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1910-16.

Noble, Saxton William Armstrong


Managing Director, Armstrong, Whitworth and Company.

Noradunghian, Gabriel Effendi


Minister of Public Works and Minister ad interim for Foreign Affairs, 1909.

O’Beirne, Mr H. J.


British Councillor of Embassy at St Petersburg, 1906-15.

O’Conor, Sir Nicolas


British Ambassador at Constantinople, 1898-1908.

Ohlenschlager, Lieutenant Norman Albert Gustave


Commanded HMS Lizard, 1917-18.

Oliver, Vice-Admiral (later Admiral of the Fleet) Sir Henry Francis


Naval assistant to Sir John Fisher, 1908-10; Director of Naval Intelligence, 1913-4; Chief of the Admiralty War Staff, November 1914-17.

Osman Pasha,


Marshal of the Turkish Army, 1909.

Osten-Sacken, Count


Russian Ambassador at Berlin, 1895-1912.

Ostrorog, Leon


Legal Adviser to the Porte, 1898-1914.

Ottley, Rear-Admiral Sir Charles Langley


Director of Naval Intelligence, 1905-7, Secretary of the Committee of Imperial Defence, 1907-12; Director of Armstrong, Whitworth & Company, 1912-7.

Pakenham, Captain (later Admiral Sir) William


Present as observer at Tsushima, 1904; Fourth Sea Lord, 1911; Rear-Admiral commanding 3rd Cruiser Squadron, Home Fleet, 1913; commanded 2nd Battle Cruiser Squadron, 1915; commanded Battle Cruiser Fleet, 1917.

Paléologue, M. Maurice Georges


French Minister at Sofia, 1907-12; Director of Political and Commercial Affairs, French Foreign Office, 1912-4; Ambassador at St Petersburg, 1914-17.

Pallavicini, Jean, Marquis von


Austro-Hungarian Ambassador at Constantinople, 1906-18.

Parker, Mr Alwyn


Junior Clerk in British Foreign Office, 1906-12; Assistant Clerk, 1912-17, Librarian, 1918-19.

Parry, Lieutenant (later Admiral Sir) William Edward


Lieutenant, HMS Grasshopper, 5th destroyer flotilla, 1914. Commanded HMS Achilles, Battle of the River Plate, 1939.

Paschwitz, Vice-Admiral Hubert von Rebeur-


Commanded Mittelmeerdivision, 1917-18.

Pasic, M. Nikola


Serbian Prime Minister, 1906-8, 1909-11; Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1912-18.

Peirse, Vice-Admiral Sir Richard Henry


Commander, Allied Naval Forces on the Suez Canal, 1914-6.

Pelletan, Camille


French Minister of Marine, 1902-5.

Phillimore, Captain (later Admiral Sir) Richard Fortescue


Captain, HMS Inflexible, from 28 August 1914. Commanded Inflexible at the battle of the Falkland Islands, 1914 and at the Dardanelles, 1915. Principal Beach Master during the landings at Gallipoli, 1915.

Pichon, M. Stephan


French Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1906-11.

Pohl, Admiral Hugo von


Chief of the German Admiralty Staff, 1914.

Poincaré, M. Raymond Nicolas Landry


French Minister for Finance, 1906; Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1912-3, 1922-4, 1926-9; President of the French Republic, 1913-20.

Popovic, M.


Serbian Minister at St Petersburg, 1907-14.

Power, Captain (later Admiral Sir) Laurence Eliot


Captain Superintendent of Contract Work on the Tyne, 1912-15; Director of Dockyards and Repairs, 1915-23. Rear-Admiral, 1916; Vice-Admiral, 1920; Knighted, 1921; Admiral, 1925.

Prinetti, Signor


Italian Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1901-3.

Quadt, von Wykradt von, Count


German Minister to Athens, 1912-5.

Rendel, George


Third Secretary at British Legation, Athens, 1914.

Reshid Pasha


Turkish Ambassador at Rome, 1896-1908; at Vienna, 1909-11.

Richmond, Captain (later Admiral Sir) Herbert William


Assistant Director of the Operations Division, Admiralty, 1913-5.

Rifaat Pasha


Turkish Minister at Athens, 1898-1908; Ambassador at London, 1908-9; Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1909-11; Ambassador at Paris, 1911-14.

Riza Bey, Ahmed


Turkish President of the Chamber of Deputies, 1908-12.

Riza, Captain Ali


Turkish Naval Attaché, London, 1913-4.

Riza Pasha, General


Turkish Minister of War, 1908.

Rodd, Sir James Rennell


British Ambassador at Rome, 1908-21.

Rouvier, M. Maurice


French Finance Minister, 1902-5; Prime Minister, Finance Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1905-6.

Runciman, Walter


Liberal MP, 1899-1900, 1902-18, 1924-31; National MP, 1931-7. President of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries, 1911-4; President of the Board of Trade, 1914-6.

Russell, Mr (since 1923, Sir) Theo.


2nd Secretary at British Embassy at Berlin, 1903-5; Assistant Private Secretary to Sir E. Grey, 1905-8; 1st Secretary (later Counsellor of Embassy) at Vienna, 1908-14.

Ryan, Andrew (later Sir Andrew)


Second Dragoman at the British Embassy, Constantinople, 1907-14.

Saïd Pasha (Küchük Saïd Pasha)


Turkish Grand Vizier, 1882-5, 1895, 1901-3, 22 July-5 August 1908, September 1911-July 1912.

Saint-Seine, Capitaine de vaisseau Jean Charles Just Bénigne de


French Naval Attaché in London, 1911-6.

Salis, J. F. C. Count de


Councillor of British Embassy at Berlin, 1906-11.

Salisbury, The 3rd Marquis of


Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1895-1900; Prime Minister, 1895-1902.

Samson, Major L. L. R.


British Consul at Adrianople, 1906.

Samuel, Herbert Louis


Postmaster-General, 1910-4; President of the Local Government Board, 1914-5.

Sanderson, Sir Thomas H. (later Lord Sanderson)


Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1894-1906.

San Giuliano, Marquis di


Italian Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1905-6; Ambassador at London, 1906-10.

Satow, Mr H. E.


British Vice-Consul at Usküb, 1904-6; Acting Consul-General at Salonica, 1906-9.

Sazonov, M. Sergei Dmitrievich


Councillor of Russian Embassy at London, 1904-6; Agent to the Vatican, 1906-9; Russian Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1910-6.

Schoen, Herr von


German Ambassador at St Petersburg, 1905-7; Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1907-10.

Schofield, Vice-Admiral Brian B.


Midshipman, HMS Indomitable, 1914.

Scott, Leslie, K.C., M.P.


Conducted Troubridge’s defence, 1914.

Scott, Admiral Sir Percy


Captain of the RN Gunnery School, 1903-5; Inspector of Target Practice, 1905. Hauled down flag 1909 but recalled to Admiralty for special service, 1914-18.

Seely, John Edward Bernard (later Lord Mottistone)


Secretary of State for War, 1912-4.

Selborne, Earl of


First Lord of the Admiralty, 1900-5.

Selves, M. de


French Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1911-2.

Shemshi Pasha


General of the Turkish Army, 1908.

Shevket, Pasha, Mahmud


Turkish Commander of the IIIrd Army Corps, 1908-9; Inspector-General and Minister for War, 1910-2; Grand Vizier, January-June 1913.

Simon, Sir John Allsebrook


Liberal MP, 1906-18, 1922-31. Solicitor-General, 1910-3; Attorney-General with a seat in the Cabinet, 1913-15.

Slade, Vice-Admiral Sir Edmond John Warre


Director of Naval Intelligence, 1907-8; attached to the Commission on Oil Fuel Supplies, 1912-4.

Souchon, Rear-Admiral Wilhelm


Commander of the German Mediterranean Squadron, October 1913-August 1914. Appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Turkish Navy, September 1914.

Sowerby, Captain Charles


Commanded HMS Indefatigable, 1914.

Spring-Rice, Sir Cecil A.


Minister at Tehran, 1906-8.

Stamfordham, Baron (Arthur John Bigge)


Assistant Private Secretary to Queen Victoria, 1880-95; Private Secretary, 1895-1901; Private Secretary to Prince Geogre, 1901-10; to King George V, 1910-31.

Stanley, Beatrice Venetia


A cousin of Clementine Churchill and Asquith’s confidante.

Stemrich, Herr


German Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1907-11.

Stolypin, M.


Russian Prime Minister, 1906-11.

Sturdee, Rear-Admiral Sir Frederick Charles Doveton


Assistant Director of Naval Intelligence, 1900-2; Rear-Admiral, Home Fleet, 1909-10; Chief of the Admiralty War Staff, 1914; Commander-in-Chief of the 4th Battle Squadron, 1915-8.

Surtees, Colonel H. C.


Military Attaché to the British Embassy at Constantinople and the Legation at Athens, 1905-9.

Sydenham, 1st Baron (Sir George Clarke)


Secretary to the Committee of Imperial Defence, 1904-7.

Sykes, Sir Mark


Conservative MP, 1910-9. Honorary Attaché at Constantinople, 1905-7; British negotiator of an inter-Allied territorial settlement for the Near East, 1916.

Szögyényi-Marich, Count


Austro-Hungarian Ambassador at Berlin, 1892-1914.

Talaat, Pasha, Mehmed


Member of the Young Turk triumvirate, 1908. First Vice-President of the Turkish Chamber of Deputies, 1909; Minister for the Interior, 1909-1911; Minister of Post and Telegraph, 1912; Minister for the Interior, 1913-7; Grand Vizier, 1917-8.

Tcharykov, M.


Assistant Secretary at Russian Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 1908-9; Ambassador at Constantinople, 1909-12..

Tewfik Pasha, Ahmed


Turkish Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1895-1909; Grand Vizier, 1909; Ambassador at London, 1909-14.

Tilley, Mr (since 1919 Sir) John A. C.


Assistant Clerk, British Foreign Office, 1904-6; 1st Secretary at Constantinople, 1906-8; Senior Clerk, 1910-3.

Tirpitz, Grossadmiral Alfred von


Secretary of State for the German Navy, 1897-1916.

Tisza, Count Stephan


Hungarian Prime Minister, 1903-5, 1913-17. Assassinated, 1918.

Tittoni, Signor


Italian Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1903-5, 1906-9.

Townshend, Major-General Sir Charles


Commanded 6th Indian Division, Mesopotamia, 1915-16. Prisoner of War after the siege of Kut, 1916-18.

Troubridge, Rear-Admiral (later Admiral Sir) Ernest Charles Thomas


Naval Attaché, Vienna, Madrid, Tokyo, 1901-4; Private Secretary to the First Lord, 1911; Chief of the Admiralty War Staff, 1912; Commander of the 1st Cruiser Squadron, Mediterranean, 1912-4; Head of the British Naval Mission to Serbia, 1915-16.

Trummler, Rear-Admiral


Commanded the Mittelmeerdivision, 1912-13.

Tschirschky, Herr von


German Minister for Foreign Affairs, 1906-7; Ambassador at Vienna, 1907-16.

Tudor, Rear-Admiral Frederick C. T.


Third Sea Lord from August 1914.

Turkhan Pasha


Turkish Ambassador at St Petersburg, 1908-13.

Tyrrell, Lt-Col. G. E.


British Military Attaché, Constantinople, 1909-13; also at Athens, 1909-11 and Sofia 1911-3.

Tyrrell, Sir William George


Senior Clerk in the British Foreign Office, Private Secretary to Sir E. Grey, 1907-15.

Usedom, Admiral Guido von


Commanded Turkish land defences, Bosphorus and Dardanelles, 1914-15.

Vambéry, Arminius


British Agent at Constantinople.

Venizelos, Eleutherios


Prime Minister of Greece, 1910-5, 1917-20, 1924, 1928-32, 1933.

Vere, Arthur de Vere


British resident and agent for Vickers in Constantinople until his return to London in October 1914.

Wangenheim, Baron Hans Freiherr von


German Minister at Athens, 1909-12; Ambassador at Constantinople, 1912-15.

Warner, Sub-Lieutenant (later Captain) G. H.


Sub-Lieutenant, HMS Defence, 1914.

Weakley, Mr Ernest


British Commercial Attaché at Constantinople, 1897-1914.

Whitehead, Mr (since 1909, Sir) J. B.


Secretary of British Embassy at Constantinople, 1902-3; Secretary and Councillor of Embassy at Berlin, 1903-6; Minister at Belgrade, 1906-10.

Willcocks, Sir W.


Adviser to Turkish Department of Public Works, 1900-11.

Wilson, Admiral Sir Arthur Knyvet


Commander-in-Chief of the Home and Channel Fleets, 1901-7; First Sea Lord, 1910-11; employed at the Admiralty in an unofficial capacity throughout the war.

Wilson, General Sir Henry Hughes


Director of Military Operations, 1910-4; chief liaison officer with the French Army, 1915.

Wray, Captain (later Vice-Admiral) Fawcet


Commanded HMS Defence, 1914.

Wyld, Lt-Com. (later Captain) Herbert W.


Lieutenant-Commander, HMS Pincher, 5th destroyer flotilla, 1914.

Young, Mr C. A.


1st Secretary at British Legation at Athens, 1905-10.

Zinoviev, M. I. A.


Russian Ambassador at Constantinople, 1898-1909.

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THE MILLSTONE: British Naval Policy in the Mediterranean, 1900-1914, the Commitment to France and British Intervention in the War © Geoffrey Miller

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HMS Berwick
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Home ContentsSearch Feedback Preface Introduction Superior Force Straits Chapter 1
Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Chapter 10
Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 Chapter 19
Chapter 20 Summary Resurgam Bibliography Index Ordering Order Form Biographies Links

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